Creel Richardson – Annotated Bibliography

“Electric vehicles are not just the wave of the future, they are saving lives today.” Earthjustice, 25 June 2020, Accessed 25 February 2021.

The article, “Electric vehicles are not just the wave of the future, they are saving lives today”, discusses the benefits that EVs are having in today’s world, and why they should be invested in for the future. It begins by discussing the wide range of electric (or hybrid) vehicle options currently available. These electric options include smaller cars, trucks, and tractors. The author then makes the claim that within a few years, electric garbage and delivery trucks will be used much more widely. The article discusses how electric vehicles are beneficial to the environment, and our health. The harmful particles released by cars that burn fossil fuels can cause long term damage to our bodies, according to the author. The author then recognizes that electric vehicles are better in the long run, even though they require more fossil fuels during production. The article stresses the importance of improving the infrastructure around electric vehicles. The author supports this claim by discussing the importance of having charging stations widely available to consumers. According to the author, it is also important for states to start planning ahead now, as EVs are becoming more widely available. Finally, the article talks about how electric public transit is the key to a cleaner future. Public buses burn a great deal of fuel, and having more electric options would help greatly in the future, according to the article.

This article gives a thorough amount of information about the benefits of electric vehicles, and how we can maximize those benefits. I think that this information will help me further analyze what kind of effects GM’s decision will have. The author’s discussion of electric public transit will allow me to discuss why they may be better than individual electric cars. The information in this source will also strengthen my argument that more auto companies should follow GM. The article organizes a great deal of information in a more simple way, and provides helpful images, videos, and charts throughout. This thorough information will help me address the concerns about electric vehicles, and their impact on the environment.


Freeman, Jody. “General Motors Is Counting on Your Loving Electric Cars.” The New York Times, 2 Feb. 2021, Accessed 8 February 2021.

Jody Freeman’s article, “General Motors Is Counting on Your Loving Electric Cars” describes the likely effects of GM’s decision to produce only electric cars by 2035. She recognizes that GM is the first major auto company to announce that they will end production of gas-powered cars. She believes that this decision has put pressure on other auto companies, and oil and gas producers, to make similar changes. Freeman asserts that this pressure is also due to the steady decline in demand for oil and gas, as more companies shift to renewable forms of energy. She claims that GM’s decision will also greatly impact auto design and manufacturing. According to the article, auto companies will have to market electric cars to consumers in a much more straightforward way. However, Freeman argues that major changes will need to be made in the energy sector. She claims that the U.S. power grids must become stronger and more reliable in order to handle the new demand for electricity. Finally, Freeman acknowledges how important companies like GM will be in the fight against climate change.

Freeman is more than qualified to provide information on this topic. According to the article, she is a professor at Harvard Law School, where she teaches environmental law. She also served as a counselor for energy and climate change in the Obama White House in 2009 and 2010. The title of the article is describing the potential risks of GM’s decision. The company is hoping that people will be more open to electric vehicles as that will be all that they offer in the coming years. Freeman’s discussion of the effects of GMs’ decision goes into great detail, and provides the information in a way that is easy to follow. I believe this article is reliable, and Freeman’s opinions will give me much more to analyze. She contributes her opinion after discussing the facts of the matter, which gives readers a better understanding of the topic. This information will help me answer my research question, and allow me to provide background information as to why these effects are likely to happen. Finally, Freeman’s article helps to open the conversation as to why GM’s decision will lead to great changes for everyone in the future.


Gonçalves, André. “Are Electric Cars Really Greener?” Youmatter, 25 Sept. 2018, Accessed 23 February 2021.

André Gonçalves’ article, “Are Electric Cars Really Greener?” compares the benefits and drawbacks of electric vehicles to those of traditional cars. Even though the answer to the question may seem obvious, it is more complicated. Gonçalves recognizes that the answer to this question lies more in the manufacturing process. He explains that greenhouse gases are continuously released during the production of electric cars. Gonçalves also discusses how the production of the batteries accounts for a large part of the energy used. Although EVs are not truly zero emission, Gonçalves observes that more renewable energy sources are becoming available as the technology is improving. He believes that these improvements are key to advancing the availability, and appeal, of EVs. Finally, he discusses the fact that public transportation may be a more viable option for protecting the environment.

This article discusses the topic of whether electric vehicles are really greener than traditional cars. It is mentioned that Gonçalves studied sustainability management, which gives this article more reliability and depth. His discussion of the impacts of electric vehicle production will help me analyze the more complex effects of GM’s decision. He offers different perspectives by discussing the advantages, as well as the drawbacks of these electric vehicles. By providing information on both sides of the topic, Gonçalves’ article allows for a deeper conversation about the effects of EVs. He even states that things like public transportation are better for the environment than individual cars of any kind. This fact will help me describe what changes auto companies could make that would maximize the benefits of EVs. The article will also allow me to provide more information on the other side of the argument of electric vehicles, and to give a more accurate description of the effects of GM’s goals.


King, Chris and Tim Echols. “The Compelling Economic Benefits of Electric Vehicles.” Power, 14 Mar. 2020, Accessed 25 February 2021.

Chris King and Tim Echols’ article, “The Compelling Economic Benefits of Electric Vehicles” discusses the benefits EVs will have for the economy, and for consumers. The article begins by discussing how electric vehicles can benefit the power grid and local economies. The authors explain how our power grid is normally only working at less than 50 percent. This fact brings an opportunity for more EVs to be able to operate at only a small additional cost. The article also explains how more people paying to charge these vehicles would also benefit the power companies. However, as more renewable energy sources become available, people will start to save money. The authors go into more detail about how much people could save by driving EVs instead of traditional cars. Finally, the article goes on to explain what needs to be done in the future to improve the infrastructure around EVs.

The authors of this article seem to have strong credibility on this topic. Chris King is the Global Policy Officer of Siemens Digital, and Tim Echols is the Vice Chairman of the Georgia Public Service Commission. Siemens Digital is an innovation and technology leader in industrial automation and technology. The Georgia Public Service Commission works to ensure that consumers receive safe, and reliable electric and natural gas services. Both authors provide well-rounded and reliable information throughout the article. This information will help me understand the economic effects that would come with more widely available EVs. The article also addresses what changes need to be made to our power grid to make it more secure. These changes will help me address the concerns of those that are opposed to electric vehicles. The article also provides specific numbers and measurements throughout to support the authors’ claims. This data is important as it will allow my discussion of the effects of more EVs to be more detailed. This reliable information will also strengthen my argument of why more auto companies should follow suit of GM.


James, Jessica. “General Motors, the Largest U.S. Automaker, Plans to be Carbon Neutral by 2040.” General Motors Company, 28 Jan. 2021, Accessed 25 February 2021.

Jessica James’ article, “General Motors, the Largest U.S. Automaker, Plans to be Carbon Neutral by 2040,” discusses the specifics of how GM will meet this large goal. James begins the article by listing the different ways that GM plans to change, including producing all electric vehicles by 2035. The article then discusses how GM is working with the Environmental Defense Fund to eliminate tailpipe emissions. General Motors is committed to taking a science-based approach, which James further explains in the article. She goes on to recognize that GM plans to source renewable energy in order to power all of its U.S. sites by 2030. GM is also planning to invest in creating charging stations that are more effective and widely available. Finally, James explains the company’s commitment to ensuring that these EVs will be powered by renewable energy sources.

This article provides a thorough description and explanation of GM’s plans and goals for the future. The author, Jessica James, works in Sustainability Communications at General Motors. She will have firsthand knowledge about what the company is planning for the future. This gives much more reliability to the article, and the information that it provides. I think that this will make my argument stronger by helping me understand the specifics of how GM will meet their goals. This article also provided information such as, that GM is planning to power these EVs with all renewable energy sources, and that they are dedicated to maintaining high-quality jobs. These facts will allow me to address the other side of the argument for this topic. Finally, all of this information will help to strengthen my argument that more auto companies should make similar changes as GM has.


The discussion of electric vehicles has become more prevalent as more companies begin to transition towards them. I have chosen sources that discuss a number of different views pertaining to this topic, and the background of it. It is clear throughout my sources that electric vehicles are cleaner for the environment. However, my sources analyze different aspects of electric vehicles, and the different impacts that they have. One perspective, provided by Earthjustice, is focused more on the environmental and health benefits of electric vehicles. Another aspect, from King and Echols, is more focused on the economic benefits of using these vehicles. Authors such as Gonçalves provide more information on the background of how electric vehicles are produced, and the consequences of them. After reading through my sources, they each represent different perspectives on this topic. I believe that their different focuses will allow me to keep my discussion well-balanced and fair.

As I have researched this topic, I believe that my sources discuss most of the aspects of electric vehicles. However, I think that the arguments against EVs could be discussed in more detail. While most of my sources mention the consequences of electric vehicles, they are not discussed in very much detail (aside from Gonçalves’ article). I think that I could enter the conversation by addressing these concerns in a more straightforward way. I am also considering choosing a source that is more detailed and in depth about why EVs are better than traditional cars. This would help me strengthen my argument that more auto companies should follow in GM’s footsteps, and move away from fossil fuels.

I have found a number of sources that provide a great deal of information to answer my research question. I believe that my research question is a good start, but may need to be modified. My research question is, “What are the effects of GM’s decision to only produce electric vehicles by 2035?” I would like to change it to ask something that is more argumentative and takes a stance on the issue. I am considering changing it to “Why should more auto companies follow GM and aim to benefit the environment?” I think that this kind of question would give me more to discuss for my argument.

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